CARBON BUILDINGS - There are not many buildings in England that are
heading towards reducing their carbon
footprint to below 1990 levels. Herstmonceux Museum is one such
building, but the clever planners at Wealden
District Council are doing their best to prevent the Trust and other
contributors from doing just that. If this is an example of local
authority interference - and we have every reason to believe that it is
- then Her Majesty's wishes as in the goals of the Climate Change Act
2008 are not going to be met by 2050 or ever. What a disappointment for
Nations this is going to be.
The Climate Change Act 2008 (c 27) is an Act of the Parliament of the
Kingdom. The Act makes it the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for all six Kyoto greenhouse gases for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline, toward avoiding dangerous climate change. The Act aims to enable the United Kingdom to become a low-carbon economy and gives ministers powers to introduce the measures necessary to achieve a range of greenhouse gas reduction targets. An independent Committee on Climate Change has been created under the Act to provide advice to UK Government on these targets and related policies. In the act Secretary of State refers to the Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change.
are, therefore, bound by the tenets of the Climate Change Act 2008 to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels. Our Government has given all
local authorities until 2050 to achieve that goal and do their part. Fat
problem here is that planning departments do not really understand the
physics sufficiently to know what they are looking at - never mind being
creative enough to find innovative ways to bring about the reductions in
their area (pro-rata) that Whitehall have set down as a statutory
ON CLIMATE CHANGE - Leaving the EU would change how UK carbon budgets are delivered: where policies previously agreed at EU level no longer apply or are weakened, new UK policies will need to replace them. But it does not change the need to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the level of carbon budgets (which are set in UK law), or the duty on the Government to act to tackle climate change.
In October 2016 the Committee published a briefing on the implications of the vote to leave the EU on UK carbon budgets. The main findings are that:
The UK’s climate goals have not changed. The UK’s 2050 target and legislated carbon budgets (including the fifth carbon budget set in July 2016) remain appropriate as part of a UK contribution to global efforts to tackle climate change, including the Paris Agreement.
Existing UK commitments need strong new policies that set a clearer direction across the economy, irrespective of Brexit. The Government’s plan to meet carbon budgets must be able to meet them whatever the circumstances as the UK leaves the EU.
Some policy previously set at EU level should be preserved and strengthened in future.
The UK, alongside other Member States, has played a key role in developing EU-level mechanisms to control emissions in some areas, particularly where it makes sense to take a coordinated approach (e.g. because the relevant market is EU-wide).
If these mechanisms continue to be strengthened through the 2020s as required by the EU’s climate ambition they would cover 55% of the emissions reduction required in the UK to 2030.
In areas where these EU-level mechanisms are working effectively, or could with suitable reform, the UK should either remain in these schemes (where coordination continues to make sense) or replicate them at UK level. These include product and efficiency standards (e.g. for fuel efficiency of cars and energy efficiency of consumer goods), the EU Emissions Trading System, rules for trading of electricity, and research collaboration and innovation funding.
The UK should take opportunities to improve on some EU policy approaches. For example, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The CAP does not directly target greenhouse gas emissions reduction in agriculture although it provides funding for afforestation, which can reduce emissions. A UK-based policy framework should link farming support more closely to actions that would reduce emissions.
The Committee also noted that, after leaving, the UK may need to submit a national pledge of effort to the UN climate process, which could be based on legislated carbon budgets. Meeting the UK’s existing targets will be a positive contribution to global climate action.
The Committee will continue to monitor developments on Brexit and the implications for carbon budgets, particularly in the context of our annual progress reports to Parliament.
NATIONS FRAMEWORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE (UNFCCC)
The UNFCCC was created in 1992 as the main forum for international action on climate change. Its overall aim is to:
“achieve… stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
195 countries have joined the international agreement (known as a convention). Negotiations focus on four key areas:
* mitigating (reducing) greenhouse gas emissions
* adapting to climate change
* reporting of national emissions
* financing of climate action in developing countries
UNFCCC negotiations led to the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol set a target for 37 industrialised countries to reduce their emissions by an average 5% below 1990 levels, for the period of 2008 to 2012. As part of this group the UK committed to a 12.5% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
The targets were met successfully. Overall, the 37 countries reduced global emissions by over 10%. But this was not enough to offset the increasing emissions from other industrialising countries (such as China), meaning total global emissions grew over the period.
A second Kyoto commitment period has been agreed from 2013 to 2020. Fewer countries have signed the second commitment agreement, although the UK and the EU are participating.
Continuing UNFCCC negotiations led to the
Paris Agreement in December
The Paris Agreement is the first truly global effort to reduce emissions. To date, 160 UNFCCC parties have made voluntary pledges to reduce emissions up to 2030, including China, the US and the European Union (on behalf of the UK and other EU nations).
The main aim of the Paris Agreement is to hold the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C.
Overall, the current pledges would lead to lower global emissions compared to previous expectations. But further action will be required to keep warming to below 2°C or 1.5°C.
Recognising this gap in ambition, the Paris Agreement schedules a review of pledges in 2018 so that countries can tighten them where possible. There will be another review in 2023 and further reviews every five years after that.
FOR CLIMATE CHANGE
The UNFCCC commits all signatory nations to formulate, implement, publish and update measures to prepare for the impacts of climate change, known as ‘adaptation’. It also commits countries to cooperate on adaptation and provides a variety of support mechanisms for the implementation of adaptation measures in developing countries.
In 2010, the Cancun Adaptation Framework was adopted, and it was agreed that adaptation must be given the same priority as mitigation. The framework calls for further action on adaptation including reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience to climate change in developing countries.
The Paris Agreement also places significant emphasis on the need for adaptation action around the world.
DOCUMENT - This is an amazingly rare find, a document dated from
February of 1911. These are one of a series of instructions to the
engineers who were operating the generating machinery in Lime Park. You
may notice that in addition to generating electricity for the village,
that plant was in situ for making ice. Luxury indeed in 1911.
Baron and Charles de Roemer would have been proud to learn that their
enterprise at the turn of the Century would be re-used in such an
innovative way and no doubt appalled that any local authority would seek
to undermine such ingenuity.
- Friends of the Earth's Big Ask Campaign was one of the factors that influenced the government to include the Climate Change Bill in their legislative programme. The organisation demanded that the Bill should include legally binding targets for a reduction of at least 3% a year, amounting a total cut of around 80% by 2050. They considered that a 60% cut in carbon emissions by 2050 was not a sufficient contribution from developed countries to the international action on climate change.
The UK arm of WWF supported the Bill, but launched its Get on Board campaign for the 2050 carbon reduction target to be raised to at least 80%, including the UK share of emissions from international aviation & shipping. In addition, WWF-UK called for retention of the House of Lords' amendment that at least 70% of the UK's reduction should be achieved domestically (limiting to 30% the proportion of the reduction that can be achieved through purchasing 'carbon credits').
The other 50 or so environmental, international development and other organisations belonging to the Stop
Climate Chaos coalition backed the Big Ask Campaign and shared similar views. The coalition itself criticised the Government for failing to acknowledge the 'global warming danger threshold' of 2 °C. Taking this into account, they believed that the 2020 target should be a minimum of 30%, with an 80% target for 2050. They also considered that the Bill should include annual 3% reduction targets, cover aviation and shipping within its scope, and ban the purchase of carbon credits from overseas, a practice which they believe exports the emissions problem elsewhere.
The Joint Public Issues Team of the Baptist, Methodist, and United Reformed churches called for an 80% reduction in carbon emissions [by 2050], for not ignoring the contribution of air and sea travel, and for reductions of the United Kingdom’s own emissions rather than relying on buying carbon credits from other countries.
INDEX A - Z
BANKING LET DOWN - MISSING ACCOUNT MONEY
CARL VON ROEMER
- MULTI-FAITH PLACE OF WORSHIP
SUSSEX COUNTY COUNCIL -
PRODUCTION - LOCATIONS & SETS
HALL - BLUEBIRD ELECTRIC CARS - BE1
- BE2 -
BE3 - BE4
CHANGE - ACT 2008
ENGINES - COAL CONVERSION, INTERNAL COMBUSTION
MUSEUM - LTD
- HERSTMONCEUX CASTLE
- MOUNT FOR SOLAR PANELS
APP JAN 2015
HERSTMONCEUX & WARTLING
LADY - STATUE
AIR RAID SHELTER